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Beit Al Wali

Location:

It is located South of Aswan High Dam, near Kalabsha temple in New Kalabsha area, at Aswan.

Who built it?
It is considers one of Ramesses II Nubian monument.

Why it was built?
It was built to dedicate to God Amon and other Gods.

Explanation:
Beit el-Wali was rescued from Lake Nasser by a Polish archaeological team financed by a joint Oriental Institute of Chicago/Swiss Institute of Cairo Project.The temple itself was built on a symmetrical cruciform plan. It is consisted of a deep hall, a transverse antechamber with two columns and a sanctuary. Known as a speos, the temple was mostly hewn from the surrounding rock, except for the front wall of the deep hall with its central doorway.

There are reliefs on the deep hall considerable historic value because they provide depictions of the Syrian, Libyanand Ramesses II’s triumph over the Nubians. The scenes of the Nubian campaigns depict several sons of Ramesses II engaged in the battle.

There is a central doorway, which was later added, that communicates with a transverse antechamber. Its rock ceiling is supported by two architrave oriented north-south, supported by two sturdy fluted columns. These columns are rather unusual, being a type known as “proto-Doric”, with four vertical plane sides, inscribed, having entices, a blank horizontal fillet at the top, and a square abacus.

At each end of this transverse hall in the rear wall is a niche containing a statuary group consisting of Ramesses II between two deities, from the rear wall of the antechamber, a single doorway leads to the single sanctuary, in the rear wall of this chamber, a niche with three statues representing Ramesses II between two deities, is cut into the wall.There are many opinions on the art on the temples. Archaeologists have suggested that there were as many as four stages of construction resulting in this small temple, and perhaps as many as three artists whose hands sculpted the walls. During the early Coptic era, the temple was transformed into a church.

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Agha Khan Mausoleum

Location:
It is situated 2.5 miles from Aswan train station.

Who built it?
Mohammed Shah Ahga Khan was the founder of the mausoleum. He was the spiritual leader of the Ismailis Sect in India. He was educated in Europe and succeeded his father in 1885 to become the 48th Imam. He was one of the richest man in the world.

Why was it built?
There is a story for building this mausoleum. Agha khan had a paralysis in his leg and people advised him to travel to Aswan where he can recover. After the recovery, he decided to be buried in Aswan. So he advised to be buried in Aswan after his death.

Explanation:
It is made out of granite and is considered a very elegant pink granite structure of late 1950 origin, which also resembles the Fatimid tombs in Cairo.It is situated near the Monastery of St. Simeons on the west bank at Aswan.The wife of Agha khan kept visiting the mausoleum after the death of her husband. When she died she was buried with her husband. The tomb attracted many pilgrims after his death.

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Alexandria History | Timeline of Alexandria History

Alexandria, named after Alexander the Great, is considered to be Egypt’s second capital because of its historical importance and population. It is Egypt’s second largest city. In 332 BC the young 25-year old Alexander founded the city. His chief architect, Dinocrates, was appointed to spearhead this project which was intended to see Alexandria replace Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, and to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile Valley. The Egyptian fishing village of Rhakotis (Ra-Kedet, in Egyptian) already existed on the shore, and later gave its name to Alexandria, becoming the Egyptian quarter of the new city. Only a few months following its foundation, Alexander left the city named for him, never to return. One of his favorite generals, Ptolemy, struggled with other successors of Alexander. Â
Becoming governor of Egypt, Ptolemy succeeded in bringing Alexander’s body to back Alexandria (Aelian, Varia Historia, 12.64). The primary Ptolemaic work in the city seems to have been the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters, although Cleomenes was principally responsible for oversight of Alexandria’s continuous development. Inheriting the trade of the ruined Tyre, Alexandria grew to be larger than Carthage in less than a generation, becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East. Only a century after its foundation, Alexandria became the largest city in the world and, centuries later, was second only to Rome. It became the major Greek city of Egypt, with an extraordinary combination of Greeks from several cities and backgrounds. In addition to being a centre of Hellenism, Alexandria was home to the world’s largest Jewish community. It was here that the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, was written. The early Ptolemies fostered the development of a temple of the Muses (whence the word Museum) into what was to become the great Library of Alexandria, the leading center of Hellenistic learning throughout the world. While the Ptolemies carefully maintained the ethnic distinction of the Greek, Jewish and Egyptian populations, these largest groups of the population created divisions and tensions beginning under the reign of Ptolemy Philopater who ruled from 221-204 BC.
The civil unrest evolving out of these tensions developed into civil warfare and the purges of Ptolemy VIII Physcon who reigned from 144-116 BC (Josephus, Antiquities 12.235,243; 13.267,268; 14.250). While Alexandria had been under Roman influence for over a hundred years, it was in 80 BC that it passed under Roman jurisdiction, in accordance with the will of Ptolemy Alexander. Civil war broke out between King Ptolemy XIII and his advisers, against the renowned Queen Cleopatra VII. Julius Caesar intervened in the civil war in 47 BC and captured the city. On August 1 in 30 BC Octavian, the future emperor Augustus, finally conquered Egypt. The name of the month was later changed to August to commemorate his victory. Much of the city of Alexandria was destroyed during the Kitos War in AD 115. This gave the emperor Hadrian an opportunity to rebuild the city through the work of his architect, Decriannus. Emperor Caracalla visited the city in AD 215 and, having been offended by some insulting satires directed at him by the citizens, he commanded his troops to put to death those youths capable of bearing arms. Alexandria was ravaged by a tsunami on 21 July 365 (365 Crete earthquake), [3]. Seventeen hundred years later, this tragedy is still commemorated as a day of horror.
In the late 300’s the persecution of pagans by newly Christianized Romans intensified, culminating in the destruction of all pagan temples in Alexandria by Patriarch Theophilus who was acting under the orders of Emperor Theodosius I. The city’s Jewish quarters along with the Brucheum were desolate by 5th century. On the mainland, it appears that life revolved around the area of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both buildings becoming Christian churches. However, the Pharos and Heptastadium quarters remained populous and intact. [citation needed] Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians in their conquest of 619 to be briefly recovered in 629 by Emperor Heraclius. In 641, after a fourteen-month siege, the city was captured by General Amr ibn al-As. It played a prominent part in Napoleon’s military operations during his expedition to Egypt in 1798 until the French were routed by the British in a notable victory at the Battle of Alexandria on 21 March 1801. The subsequent siege of the town resulted in the fall of Alexandria to the British on 2 September 1801. The rebuilding and redevelopment of the city commenced around 1810 under Mohammed Ali, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt. By 1850, Alexandria had been restored to something of its former glory. [5] It was bombarded by British naval forces in July 1882, and occupied. In July of 1954 the city became the target of an Israeli bombing campaign which later became known as the Lavon Affair. An attempt to assassinate Gamal Abdel Nasser failed in Alexandria’s Mansheyya Square in October of that same year.

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Lighthouse of Alexandria | Egypt

Location:

It was built on the south east corner of the Island of Pharaohs .

Who built it?

It was constructed through the reign of PtolemyI and was completed during the reign of PtolemyII.

Why was it built?

The Lighthouse was used, as sun by day and fire by night, to make sure that sailors could safely navigate the dangerous waters.

Explanation:

On one of the facades of the first floor there was a great text its letters were made of lead. It reads Sostratos of Cnidos son of Dexiphanes built it for saviour gods.

While the second floor was octagonal in shape with height of 30 m, the third floor is round in shape with height of 15m.The last floor consists of 8 columns and a dome with total height of 23m. Between the columns, there was a lantern which reflected the lights into the sea. There was a primitive lift between the first and the fourth floor and it was used also for carrying the fuel material.The Lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the World when it was the tallest structure in the world until the Eiffel Tower was erected in 1889.The scholars said that construction of the lighthouse was necessary. For sailors, it ensured a safe return to the Great Harbor. For architects, it meant even more, it was the tallest building on Earth. And for scientists, it was the mysterious mirror that fascinated them most.
Finally it should be mentioned that the light house stood until 1323 AD, when a powerful earthquake destroyed it. Then came Sultan Qayetbay and fortified the place as a part of his coastal defenses and built on its site his castle.

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Rommel Museum | Alexandria, Egypt

The museum occupies a cave that was once used as headquarters by Rommel when he conducted the North African wars.

This cave was originally cut in the Roman era and used to store grains due to its ideal position on the Paraetonium ancient seaport. It has now been turned into a military museum; it is also famous for the British, Italian and German Cemeteries.

The museum contains several possessions of the German commander like his compass, overcoat, photographs, maps and clothes trunk. Rommel’s son dedicated many of the museum contents.The Egyptian supreme council for antiquities agreed with the chairmanship of Egyptian Minister of Culture Farouk Hosni on specifying $5 million for a museum on German General Erwin Rommel in Matrouh city, an important site in World War II history as it was taken by the famous German leader to run military operations.

The artifacts related to Rommel include personal belongings, like military cloths, his tools, wireless, a phone device and a group of maps that carry his signature.Hosni said that Rommel’s family agreed to the Egyptian plan for developing this museum with a promise of developing the museum through providing some of personal belongings of Rommel in addition to a group of rare photos as well as cinema shots about his life and World War II.

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Roman Amphitheatre in Alexandria | Egypt

Roman Amphitheatre or Roman Theatre is located in the central region of Alexandria city at Kom el-Dikka. Bordered by the Horrya Street in the north, Nabi Daniel Street in west, Abdel Moneim Street in south and Saphia Zaghloul Street from the eastern side, Roman Theatre is one of the symbols of Alexandria city.

Basically Amphitheatre means double theatre and were grand and impressive in structure. Usually built in semi-circular shape, Amphitheatre was an open-air theatre with no curtains on the stage.

The Roman Theatre of Egypt is modest in size and most of the part of the structure is in ruined condition but still it is an excellent ancient structure of Roman period of Egypt. The theatre also consists of numerous galleries erected crudely.

These galleries contain rooms for more spectators along with arrangement of 700-800 marble seats around the stage.

The Roman Amphitheatre was discovered in the excavations doing for the site of Paneion or “Park of Pan” in Kom el-Dikkah also known by the name of Hill of Rubble. In the layers of the above the roman street two other archaeological sites were found. These were a Muslim Cemetery and slums.

Dating back from the 2nd century A.D, this Roman theatre had a large auditorium, which measures 42m in diameter. The outer face of the theatre’s building was probably adorned with columns located in several storeys.

However during later times the theatre was rebuilt and the massive auditorium was diminished to 33.5 m in diameter. It then counted 16 rows of marble seats.

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